The effect of media milling on defatted sesame meal
|Keywords:||脫脂芝麻粕;介質研磨;濃度;粒徑分佈;成份分析;sesame;media-milling;concentration;particle size;composition||Issue Date:||2007||Abstract:||
芝麻粕為芝麻去除油脂之殘渣，通常用來當作動物飼料或肥料，芝麻渣含豐富的蛋白質、膳食纖維、礦物質與lignan glycosides，這些物質對人類健康是有益的。如果能夠加工成一良好產品，是對消費者有益的。本論文目的在探討介質研磨對於芝麻粕的影響，利用介質研磨技術作為芝麻粕一種加工方式，產生新穎性的加工產品，以期增加芝麻粕的利用價值。實驗以緬甸黑芝麻為試驗材料，利用壓榨方式與正已烷去除油脂，得到的芝麻粕經粗碎後，過20 mesh篩網，體積平均粒徑為239.3 ± 7.85 μm，藉由介質研磨技術將其粒徑下降至奈米/次微米等級。探討芝麻粕添加量之濃度對懸浮液粒徑分佈的影響。黏度分析、粒徑分佈、表面電位、穿透式電子顯微鏡(TEM)、掃描式電子顯微鏡(SEM)、sesaminol triglucoside含量與研磨後之外觀特性用於評估奈米/次微米芝麻懸浮液之應用。
5、10、15、20及25克芝麻粕原料與500 mL去離子水，以0.8 mm與0.3 mm之釔鋯珠作為介質研磨，經過3小時研磨後，芝麻粕的平均粒徑會由239.3 μm大幅下降。濃度會影響研磨效果，以5% (w/v)濃度的研磨效果最佳，75%的微粒為奈米/次微米等級；高濃度的研磨效果會因黏度的遽升而下降。研磨後之懸浮液為一穩定的分散相，穿透式電子顯微鏡證實奈米微粒的影像，掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察研磨後之懸浮液凍乾粉末之表面，有許多凸起的柱狀物。研磨後懸浮液之sesaminol triglucoside含量比熱水粗萃物含量較高，分別為3.20與0.33 mg/g dried weight DSM.
The defatted sesame meal (DSM) was the by-product from the extracting process of sesame oil. DSM was generally used as animal feed or fertilizer. The components in DSM include protein, cellulose, minerals and lignan glycosides, which were good for the health of human being. It would be beneficial to consumers if DSM could be further processed to be a good product. In this article, the effect of media milling on defatted sesame meal was investigated. Medium-milling would be an alternative method to process DSM and to produce a new product and to increase the useful application. Burma black sesame was used as the experimental material in this study. For removing sesame oil by pressing and n-hexane extracting was order to obtain DSM which with volume mean diameter 239.3 ± 7.85 μm was reduced to nano/submicron scale by the processing of medium milling technology. The influence of solid concentrations on particle size distribution of suspension was discussed. The apparent viscosity, particle size distribution, Zeta potential, TEM and SEM morphology, sesaminol triglucoside contents and appearance of milled product were applied to evaluate the application of suspension.
The mean diameter by volume of DSM is reduced from 239.3 μm to nano/submicron scale after medium milling for 3 hours, which the milling medium is Y-Zr beads with average diameter 0.8 mm and then 0.3 mm. The solid concentration was found a key element on affecting efficiency of milling. The best concentration of milling effect is 5% (w/v). Stability of milled product was indicated by Zeta potential (Z). The TEM photographs proved the morphology of nano/submicron sesame. The SEM photographs shown that milled lyophilized powder has different surface structure compared with raw material. Sesaminol triglucoside contents of milled sesame suspension is higher than that of hot water extract, which were 3.20 and 0.33 mg/g dried weight DSM, respectively.
The milled product would partially remain in milling chamber, especially the surface of Y-Zr beads. Proximate composition of unmilled and milled. The content ratio of crude protein was lower, but the content ratio of dietary fiber was higher. The major was crude protein remain in milling chamber, but proximate composition of milled was not significantly different when compared with that of raw material.
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