Determination of Microbial Counts in Taiwan Beverage and Assessment on its Microbiological Standards
|Keywords:||飲料;衛生標準;微生物檢驗;衛生指標菌;微生物汙染;beverage;hygiene standard;microbiological inspection;sanitation indicator;microbial contamination||Issue Date:||2010||Abstract:||
結果發現一般市售具完整容器或包裝之飲料，抽樣所測得之總生菌數和黴菌與酵母菌數均小於10 cfu/mL，大腸桿菌群最確數和大腸桿菌最確數均為陰性，符合現行法規之衛生標準，僅兩件含有乳酸菌之果蔬汁，總生菌數大於200 cfu/mL，未能符合標準；而一般無完整容器或包裝之飲料，菌數差異頗大，僅大腸桿菌最確數和沙門氏桿菌檢測結果均為陰性，符合規定。含有碳酸之飲料因pH值低有2件不合規定，不含碳酸之飲料受大腸桿菌群汙染最為嚴重，含乳成分或乳製品之酸性飲料則因大多含有乳酸菌導致總生菌數過量，即飲型飲料應列入重點管理。專家會議建議將我國飲料定義為「不含酒精或含酒精成份0.5%以下的飲品，包含果醋等非以酒精為目標產物之發酵飲品。」包含豆漿、燕麥奶、五穀奶等主要係提供蛋白質來源者之飲品和所有機能性飲料；衛生標準建議維持原案，僅將第二類第二款修正為含有咖啡、可可、茶或其他原料之飲料，而濃縮果蔬汁建議檢測黴菌及酵母菌數。
The Beverage Hygienic Standard in Taiwan was published in 1992 contained only three categories of beverages, including carbonated beverages, uncarbonated beverages, and acidic beverages containing milk or dairy products. However, it seems not to be suitable for the wide variety of beverages in the present market. Besides, microbiological criteria of beverages have not been revised since 1992 and the definition of beverage is not well defined either. Therefore, it is necessary to re-evaluate whether the standard is applicable to the variety of beverage products or not. This study collected information about beverages hygiene criteria from other countries, and investigated the microbial contents of beverage products in Taiwan market. A total of 175 samples of beverages were tested for their total plate count, coliform, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, mold and yeast count. Finally, we invited specialists and beverage producers to give their opinions for a suitable draft of the beverage categories and hygiene standards.
For all packed beverages, the results indicated that total plate counts and mold and yeast counts were less than 10 cfu/mL, and MPN of E. coli and coliform was negative, in agreement with the hygiene standard. Except 2 samples of fruit and vegetable juice containing lactic acid bacteria, their total plate counts are exceeded 200 cfu/mL, failed to meet the hygienie standard. For unpacked beverages, the E. coli and Salmonella test were met with the standard. Because of low pH values, 2 samples of carbonated beverages are unqualified. Most unqualified uncarbonated beverages were contaminated by coliform. Most acidic beverages, including milk or dairy products containing lactic acid bacteria resulted in excess total plate count. Ready to drink beverages should be always checked. The conclusions of expert meeting suggestion that the definition of beverages is “non-alcoholic or alcohol drinks containing less than 0.5% alcohol, including fermented beverages such as fruit vinegar which do not expect alcohol as target product.” The beverages such as soy milk, oat milk, cereal milk, which provide protein source and all the other functional beverages are also included in beverage category. Microbiological criteria remain unchanged, the division two of the second category was revised as “beverages containing coffee, cocoa, tea or other materials.” In addition, concentrated fruit and vegetable juice need to be determined mold and yeast counts.
|Appears in Collections:||食品科技研究所|
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