The Study of Japanese Loanwords in Mandarin in Taiwan
|關鍵字:||日語借詞;所屬領域;結構方式;使用頻率;中文裡顯示之變化;Japanese Loanwords;Category;Translating Method;Using Frequency;Variations appeared in Mandarin||公開日期:||2008||摘要:||本研究以探討台灣中文裡「日語借詞」之實態為目的。筆者將現階段臺灣人所使用之日語借詞設定為研究對象，進行從報紙－『自由時報』中取出語例的實際調查。為闡明何種領域的語詞較容易進入中文、以及日語借詞是以何種型態被借入中文等課題，以「所屬領域」及「結構方式」為基準，進行日語借詞的分類。此外，為了瞭解日語借詞於中文裡的實際使用狀況，本研究著眼於「使用頻率」及「於中文裡顯示之變化」這兩個方向，進行考察。 以下為本研究之結果。就所屬領域而言，休閒領域相關用語及任何領域皆可使用之用語較容易為台灣人所接受；從結構方式來看，數量上佔多數的「借形語」與「借音語」可反映出台灣人於外來語詞的翻譯上，多持方便主義之態度。接著從報紙裡的使用狀況來觀察日語借詞。從整體的使用次數來看，雖然臺灣人於調查期間的報紙中確實地使用著日語借詞，然而不可否認的是，實際上，使用頻率較低的語詞占了絕大多數。另一方面，本研究發現，日語借詞於「語義」、「詞性」及「型態」等三方面顯示出明顯的變化。總而言之，使用日語借詞時，台灣人除了保有該語詞之部分原有性質，亦可能於語義、詞性或型態上賦予變化。這個現象也許來自於台灣人靈活的用語能力，亦可說是對於原語詞缺乏理解所致。
This study aimed to investigate the actual state of "Japanese Loanwords" in Mandarin in Taiwan. The subject was Japanese loanwords used by Taiwanese nowadays then their examples were extracted from a newspaper "The Liberty Times" and investigated. In order to clarify what categories of words are easy to get into Mandarin and in what types that Japanese loanwords are borrowed in Mandarin, Japanese loanwords were classified on the basis of "category" and "translating method". In addition, to understand the state of practical usage of Japanese loanwords in Mandarin, this study focus on and investigated two directions "Using frequency" and "Variations appeared in Mandarin." The results of this study are as follows. As for category, dictions related to the leisure category and dictions which can be used in every category were more easily accepted by Taiwanese; as for translating method, “borrowed word” and “transliteration” took the major part which reflected that Taiwanese translated foreign words mostly on the basis of convenience consideration. Then the researcher observed Japanese Loanwords from the usage in the newspaper. As for the using frequency as a whole, although Taiwanese did use Japanese loanwords in the newspaper during the investigation period; however it was undeniable that actually the words with less using frequency took a major part in it. On the other hand, this study found out those three aspects of Japanese loanwords--“meaning”, “syntactic function” and “outlook”—had obvious variations. In summary, as Taiwanese used Japanese loanword, they kept some parts of the original nature of the word, in addition, they may change the meaning, syntactic function or outlook of a word. This phenomenon may be attributed to Taiwanese’s flexibility in wording or their lack in understanding the original word.
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