The Other in Atsushi Nakajima''s Colonial Works
|Keywords:||殖民地政策批判;他者;旁觀者視線;說故事者;文明與原始;南洋;朝鮮;滿州;the criticism of Japanese colonial policy;the other;expectant view;tusitara;civilization and primitive society;Nan-yo;Tyousen;Mansyu||Issue Date:||2008||Abstract:||中島敦終其一生有四分之一的時間住在海外殖民地。他從小學五年級到京城中學畢業曾在朝鮮待了七年；到了晚年，他以南洋廳的教科書編集書記的身份前往帛琉赴任八個月。他把這段在殖民地觀察到的見聞反映到作品中，完成了〈巡查的風景〉、〈D市七月敘景（一）〉、〈狩虎〉、〈南島譚〉、〈環礁〉等作品。關於這一系列的作品的研究，並非過去研究的重點，惟近年有逐漸受到矚目的趨勢。 歷來關於中島敦殖民地作品的研究，多把這些作品視為中島對於殖民地政策的批判與反動。本論文希望可以跳脫這個框架，著眼於作品中主角的造型，重新評價這些作品。 過去中島敦以改編中國古典題材的作品聞名。其次，在他以「三造」作為主角，被認為自傳色彩濃厚的〈過去帳〉等系列作品中，因為內容呈現出中島的精神狀態，哲學思索等命題，也漸受矚目。但是，我認為在這些作品中，代表著作者把視線封鎖在「過去」與「自己」上面。相對於此，在殖民地作品中，中島罕見地把他的目光移轉到「現在」與「他者」。中島是以什麼樣的目光注視著與自己存在時空完全不同的那些人？本論文以此一角度切入討論，希望能提供讀者嶄新的觀點。 筆者在考察這些題目時，發現了一些現象，如在朝鮮・満州時期的作品中，中島表面上是在凝視殖民地中的他者，但是在這些他者之中仍可窺見中島在其它作品中一貫關心的主題――「自我」。又，在「光和風和夢」中，主角「我」以貶低文明和讚美原始的態度來描述南洋，但是到了後期的南洋作品，開始出現了立場鬆動的現象，這顯示出中島在描述南洋時未能完全跳脫帶有文明的偏見。 在初期的朝鮮・満州時期的作品中，仍可看見中島有指謫社會問題的人道主義傾向。但在此同時已經可以發現他極力地想使自己的作品不要陷入指謫社會問題、批判殖民政策等目的性強烈的主題的掙扎。到了南洋時期的作品，批評社會問題的傾向則越來越不明顯。取而代之的，是有隔閡的「旁觀者視線」與「說故事者」的態度。這樣的視線代表著中島在認識南洋的人之時，中間存在著很大的隔閡，但同時，這樣的視線也成為他個人獨特的觀察方式。
Atsushi Nakajima had been living in the oversea colony for a quarter of his life. He had been seven years in Korea from five grade to twelve; until his later years, he left for Palau as a civil servant of textbook editor of Nan’yo cho, which was a Japan government office in south pacific sea. He reflected the experience of observing colony in his works, which like “The View of Policeman”, “The Description of D City in July”, “Tiger Hunting”, “The Tales of South Sea Islands”, “Atoll” and so on. The study about these works was so few, although it has been noticed in recent years. Regarding previous research about Nakajima’s colonial works, put those works in a way which means a criticism against the Japanese colonial policy from Nakajima hope this thesis could escape this frame through focusing on the protagonist’s characterization, and revaluate it. In the past, Atsushi Nakajima’s works had been noted as adapting the Chinese classics works. Then, in his a series of works that the protagonist named “Sanzou”, which is like “Lousitu-Ki” that be regard as a strong biographical work, has been remarked because of its content reflects Nakajima’s state of mind and thinking of philosophy. But I think these works represent that author limited his concern on “past” and “self”. In the other side, Nakajima turn his eye to “present” and “other” in his colonial works. How did Nakajima gaze those people who exist in definitely different space-time than himself? I will keep this question when I analysis the text in my thesis, and I hope it can provide some original viewpoint to readers. I found some phenomenon in my consideration. For example, I found at the pieces of his “Tyousen-Mansyu” period that may make reader thinks about author is looking the others at first sight, but actually the image of those heroes in these works shows that he is considering about ‘the self’ just like the image of his the other famous works. Or, the protagonist “I” depreciate civilization and praise primitive society in the “light and wind and dream”, nevertheless he has wavered in his standpoint at the pieces of “Nan-yo” period. It shows that Nakajima failed in escaping prejudice when he described “Nan-yo”. We could find Nakajima has a tendency toward humanitarianism when we read his “Tyousen-Mansyu” period works. But I also found in these works that he had a huge desire for making his pieces far from the criticism of social problem and Japanese colonial policy which carried the theme with clear purpose. It is obvious that he wants to avoid criticism at the pieces of “Nan-yo” period. Instead of that is a “expectant view” with a gap of people in “Nan-yo” and “Tusitara’s ” tone. I think this means that there is a huge gap between Nakajima’s observation and real “Nan-yo” people, nevertheless it is also becoming a unique observation of himself, too.
|Appears in Collections:||日本語文學系|
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