|關鍵字:||直接被動句;被字句;主動句;視座;The direct passives;BEI-sentence;The actives;Viewpoint||公開日期:||2009||摘要:||句子的表現方式，時常可以反映出該語言母語者的思考傾向。面對同一個事態，中、日文間常用不同的表現方式，特別是主動句與被動句的對立。本稿中調查日文使用被動句時，中文的對應狀況，並探討兩語言的表現特徵。為了觀察對於同一事態兩語言間表現構造的差異，本稿從兩國共同都有的翻譯作品──《新約聖經》中收集語例。 本稿主要分成兩個部份。第一部分是考察對應於日文被動句時的中文表現。第二部分先檢討幾種在中文裡較不使用被動句表現的情況，接著試著分析影響中、日文使用被動句的因素。以下則簡略介紹考察的結果。 1.對應於日文被動句的中文表現在構文上可分成10種。其中，典型及非典型的被動句的對應比例僅占47%不到半數，這顯示日文的被動句對應到中文時，與中文主動句對應的比率較被動句高。 2.中文典型被動句的被字句具有結果重視的特徵，這經常以動詞本身在語彙上的意思或句子的其他成分等來表示結果。若只看被字句的使用率，僅有30%如此的低。另一方面，語彙上被動句及意思上被動句這兩種非典型的被動句是依據話者的表現意圖來選擇使用，兩者皆在中文的被動表現中占有重要的角色。 3.中文表現中，和日文主語不同的主動句表現最多。特別是在動作主不明的情況下，有多數例子為日文原文中無顯示出的動作主反而出現在中文主動句裡的主語位置。 4.對於日文中二重目的語構文的被動句以及「知道」、「看見」等感知動詞的被動句，中文裡若無被害的意味，大多以接受方（傳達對象）當為主語，表示接受或傳達某樣事物。此外，視點統一也是日文被動句使用的動機，因此在連體節和連用節中常基於此動機使用被動態。 5.針對中、日被動句的使用率的差異，在認知上的因素可舉出兩語言各具有不同的觀察位置（視座）的傾向，一個是「在舞台上」一個是「在舞台下」。在日文裡，話者經常置身於同一舞台上的另一參與體，從其視點來描述其所遭遇的事態，或者藉由置身於某個情境當中，並把眼前所看到的情況直接描述出來的方式來認識該情境的狀況。而中文裡，話者通常從舞台下觀察舞台上的事態，並注意事態內各個參與體的行動，接著透過其行動來認識該情境的狀況。
The way people use to express one thing often reflects the tendency of thinking in their own language. While describing a same situation, terms can be so different from Japanese to Chinese, especially the confrontation of the actives and the passives. This study aimed to investigate the relative response between Chinese and Japanese. To see while the passive is used in Japanese then what will be used in Chinese. For this purpose, examples are collected from ''The New Testament'' which is a common translation work in both two languages. This study consists of two main parts. The first part is to investigate how Chinese expressions correspond with the passives of Japanese, and the second part are examine sort of expressions that seldom showed in passive in Chinese and then try to analyse factors that influence usages of passives in both Chinese and Japanese. The result is as follows. 1.There are ten kinds syntaxes of Chinese expressions correspond to Japanese passives. The percentage of typical and non-typical Chinese passives is 47%. It shows that the Japanese passives are more likely to correspond to the actives of Chinese instead of the passives. 2.Result respecting is a key feature of the typical Chinese passive “BEI(被)-sentences”. It always showed its passive voice by the meaning of the verb or other elements of the sentence. And the “BEI-sentences” takes only 30% of Chinese expressions. On the other hand, two other non-typical passives by the vocabularies and by the meaning, are used by the the intention of speakers, definitely play important role in Chinese passives. 3.Comparing to Japanese, people used mostly active sentences in Chinese, while passive sentences are used in Japenese. Especially in the condition of unknown subjects, there are many examples shows that when Japanese disguises the uncertain subjects in passive, Chinese would express in active and the uncertain agents would appear as the subject case. 4.For Japanese passives which are with double objects construction, and passives which are with sensory verbs, as long as there’s no damaging meaning, Chinese would mostly use the received sides as subjects to express receiving or transmitting something or some information. In addition, the purpose of unifying viewpoint also motivate people to use passive sentences in Japanese, therefore passives are often used in adnominal clauses and in adverbial clauses. 5.As for the extremely different percentage of passive using in Japanese and in Chinese, it can be recongnized by the tendency of cognitive aspect, that speakers of those two languages tend to take different viewpoints-- "on-stage" or "off-stage". That means, in Japanese, speakers tend to take a part on the stage just as a participator, describing the event from the on-stage side or else just directly put themselves into the certain condition and picture status in the way before their eyes. And in Chinese, speakers tend to observe the stage from the downstage side, paying attention to every actors on the stage, and then knowing the situations by their actions.
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