The Meaning of War Criticism in Shohei Ooka’s Work: Through “Our Lady of San Jose”
|關鍵字:||戰爭批判;改稿;幸福;發問;心理描寫;戰死與生還;偶然與必然;War criticism;drafts;happiness;questioning;psychological descriptions;death in battle and survival;coincidence and inevitability||公開日期:||2011||摘要:||大岡昇平（1909-1988）是日本戰後文學的推手之一，一般歸類為第二次戰後派作家，其二戰時被徵召入伍，駐守菲律賓民都洛島的經驗，成為日後他戰爭小說創作的題材，如《俘虜記》（創元社，1948）《野火》（創元社，1952）《萊特戰記》（中央公論社，1971）等，皆廣為知悉與研究。然而戰爭短篇小說集《聖荷西的聖母》（作品社，1950）至今仍是乏人問津，故本論聚焦於此書，分析其主題與大岡昇平戰爭小說的批判性，以確立《聖荷西的聖母》的文學意義與價值。
The writer Shohei Ooka’s (1909-1988) belonged to a group of postwar writers, and he participated in World War II as a soldier. He was stationed in San Jose, on Mindoro island in the Philippines. Using his war experiences, he created many works on the topic of war. Among them, “Taken captive: A Japanese POW''s Story” (1948), “Fires on the Plain” (1952), and “A Record of the Battle of Leyte” (1971) are among his best known. However, his short story, “Our Lady of San Jose” (1950) has, up to now, not been deeply examined. To that end, I have focused this paper on “Our Lady of San Jose,” studied common themes throughout Shohei Ooka’s war novels, and examined the meaning of his war criticism. I first considered the completion and drafts of “Our Lady of San Jose.” From there, Ooka’s desire to strongly express himself as a demobilized soldier is revealed. Ooka’s drafts were not simply to polish and improve upon his expression, they also held within them a determination for exacting his expression, as well as psychological and character descriptions. For Ooka, creating war novels was not just for fun, or for his own satisfaction, rather it was a medium for him to convey his way of thinking and what he wanted to say to the reader. Moreover, “Our Lady of San Jose” is a work in which the author is posing a question, and the 12 short stories within each contain the author’s questions and awareness of problems. These many questions give “Our Lady of San Jose” its diverse quality, as well as making it a collection of disparate pieces. These questions are the authors own, as well as the essence of the author’s creation. Moreover, while it belongs to the “short story collection” genre, “Our Lady of San Jose” actually occupies a unique position somewhere between a full length novel or a novel series and the so-called short story collection. Shohei Ooka’s war criticism as seen through “Our Lady of San Jose” contains many critical aspects, including introspective self-criticism, raw self-awareness, “biological emotional” criticism of the Emperor, etc. The complex mentality that exists there is difficult to express. It is rare for a writer to maintain this interest in war while also keeping his critical stance of war, and I believe he should be acknowledged for this.
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