The Characteristics and Historical Changes of Japanese Ghost Stories: Until the Establishment of Kinsei Mystery Novels in early Edo Period
|關鍵字:||幽靈;怨靈;御靈思想;執念;近世怪異小說;‘Y?rei’ (ghosts);‘onry?’ (vengeful spirit);the belief of ‘gory?’;obsession;Kinsei Mystery Novels||公開日期:||2016||摘要:||近世時期怪談盛行，人們透過百物語怪談會、歌舞伎、小說等形式講述怪談，現今我們耳熟能詳的《四谷怪談》、《番町皿屋敷》、《牡丹燈籠》等日本怪談都是這個時代的產物。在怪談蔚為風潮的近世時期，幽靈成為各式文藝作品最為受歡迎的題材之一。講述幽靈的故事又稱為幽靈譚；然而幽靈譚並非近世之後才產生，早在平安時代的王朝文學中就已經可以窺見幽靈的蹤跡，此外，平安時代的幽靈譚中已存在著近世幽靈譚常見的幽靈因怨恨而作祟的故事特徵。亦即，近世幽靈譚可說是由先前各時代的幽靈譚為基礎發展而成。
This dissertation analyzes ‘Yūreitan’ (ghost stories) in Japanese from Heian period to Edo period to illuminate how the image of ‘Yūrei’ (ghosts) developed through different eras. This dissertation includes four chapters mainly. Chapter one, “Ancient Japanese’s conception of the soul,” explores ancient Japanese view of the soul and life after death through mythologies in ‘Kojiki’ (712) and ‘Nihon shoki’ (720), or poems in ‘Man''yōshū’ (7th-8th). Ancient Japanese thought, likes the thought of ‘onryō’ (怨霊思想) or the belief of ‘goryō’ (御霊信仰), is being formed and deeply affected the ‘Yūreitan’ later. I also consider the influence of Buddhism which is involved with the image of ‘Yūrei’ and the land of dead. Chapter two, “The Yūrei in literary works during the Heian period,” discusses the ‘Yūrei’ in ‘Nihon Ryōiki’ (787-824), ‘The Tale of Genji’ (1008), and ‘Konjaku Monogatarishū ’ (12th century) . In Heian period, the ‘Yūrei’ became visible compared with Nara period. Chapter three, “The Yūrei in literary works during the Kamakura and Muromachi period,” discusses samurai’s ghosts in war tales, likes Kusunoki Masashige’s vengeful spirit in ‘Taiheiki’ (late 14th) etc. The born of samurai’s ghosts is a result of samurai government and many wars in this period. Chapter four, “The Yūreitan in Kaiisyōsetsu during the early Edo period,” examines the ‘Yūrei’ in ‘Otogibōko’ (1666) and ‘Syōkokuhyakumonogatari’ (1677) which are the two representative works of ‘Kaiisyōsetsu’ (a novel category of ‘Kaidan’ collections) during the early Edo period (1603-1749). ‘Kaidan,’ a genre which talk about mysterious or bewitching things, was very popular in this period. Except for text analysis, I also analyze the illustrations in ‘Kaiisyōsetsu’ and the influence of Chinese literature. This dissertation mainly focuses on texts analyzing, illuminating the image ‘Yūrei’s’ development in literary works through different eras. I also consider how foreign literature and thought affected Japanese thought and ‘Yūreitan’.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。