Prose Satire and the Novel: Satirical Novels by Five British Women Writers in the Eighteenth Century
|Keywords:||曼尼帕斯式諷刺文類;仿擬;小說的起源;十八世紀女性小說家;感傷主義小說;Menippean satire;parody;the rise of the novel;eighteenth-century women novelists;sentimental novel||Issue Date:||2010||Abstract:||
本論文旨在探討英國十八世紀五位女性作家所創作之諷刺小說，包括達拉薇爾．曼麗（Delarivier Manley, 1672-1724）的《新亞特蘭提斯（The New Atalantis, 1709）》、瑪麗．戴維斯（Mary Davy s, 1674-1727）的《洗心革面的調情女（The Reform''d Coquet, 1724）》、夏綠蒂．萊諾克斯（Charlotte Lennox, c. 1729-1804）的《女吉訶德（The Female Quixote, 1752）》、法蘭西絲．柏尼（Frances Burney, 1752-1840）的《伊芙琳娜（Evelina, 1778）》以及伊麗莎白．英奇巴爾德（Elizabeth Inchbald, 1753-1821）的《自然與藝術（Nature and Art, 1796）》。本論文主張此時期女性作家透過創作諷刺小說來積極參與以往總被視為男性所主導之諷刺傳統。如本論文研究所示，小說出版市場隨著男性和女性小說家、聲名顯赫作家和格勒布街雇傭文人一同加入而不斷迅速擴張，小說新文類的發展因而結合了多重元素：曼尼帕斯式諷刺文類、古典諷刺詩、法國羅曼史、西班牙短篇小說、女性情愛小說、書信體小說、誹謗小說、教條主義小說、行為文學、復辟時期喜劇、旅行文學以及流浪小說等。此外，女性諷刺小說家不僅僅師法古典拉丁文學諷刺家如霍瑞斯（Horace）和朱文諾（Juvenal），或從當代男性諷刺作家如強納森．綏夫特（Jonathan Swift）和亨利．費爾汀（Henry Fielding）之作品中得到靈感，更於其自身小說中透過實驗與創新諷刺敘事策略而對此諷刺傳統有獨特的貢獻。
This dissertation examines the satirical novels by five British women writers in the long eighteenth century, including The New Atalantis (1709) by Delarivier Manley (1672-1724), The Reform''d Coquet (1724) by Mary Davys (1674-1727), The Female Quixote (1752) by Charlotte Lennox (c. 1729-1804), Evelina (1778) by Frances Burney (1752-1840), and Nature and Art (1796) by Elizabeth Inchbald (1753-1821). I argue that the satirical novels by women writers in this period demonstrate women’s active participation in the satiric tradition, which is generally regarded as dominated by male practitioners and critics. As my study shows, with the immensely expanding market of novel publications joined by both male and female novelists from prominent writers to Grub Street hacks, the development of the new genre of the novel combines forces from multiple lines: Menippean satire in prose, formal verse satire, French romance, Spanish novella, women’s amatory fiction, epistolary fiction, scandalous novels, didactic novels, conduct literature, Restoration comedy, traveler’s tale, picaresque narrative, and the like. Moreover, the women writers of satirical novels not just learn from classical models of Roman satirists such as Horace and Juvenal, or from their contemporary male colleagues such as Jonathan Swift and Henry Fielding, but also make their own distinctive contribution to both the satiric and novelistic traditions by experimenting with and innovating satiric narrative strategies in their novels.
My investigation of these women''s satirical works further reveals that there existed a gradual shift from Manley’s blatant political satire, through the comic presentations of reformed coquettes with their exotic/fantastic adventures in Davys, Lennox and Burney, to the final abandonment of the satiric mode for the sentimental one by Inchbald in the middle of her novel. Having been absorbed into the novel, the sharpness of satire in the later women novelists was softened to be mild and harmless, and toward the end of the century satire as a genre eventually fell from its earlier prominent status, as evidenced by Inchbald''s symbolic gesture in composing Nature and Art.
|Appears in Collections:||外國語文學系|
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