A Study of Chinese Character Writing Paradigm:Examples of Sima Qian and Han Yu
|關鍵字:||人物書寫;司馬遷;史記;韓愈;古文;載道;抒情;Character Writing;Sima Qian;Records of the Grand Historian;Han Yu;ancient article;zai-dow;lyric||公開日期:||2015||摘要:||本論文以司馬遷《史記》與韓愈散文為代表，探討中國古典散文人物書寫之特質及其發展演變之歷程，並以「載道」與「抒情」二大寫人典型作為主要論述架構，建構人物書寫體系，闡述中國寫人傳統獨特之精神意涵與文學特色。司馬遷《史記》集先秦人物書寫之大成，奠定以「人」為主之史傳體式。其一方面傳承先秦史學之載道傳統，確立寫人之「載道」典型；另方面則融詩騷言志詠懷之精神，創發寫人之抒情傳統，確立「抒情」典型。此後，「載道」與「抒情」乃成為中國寫人傳統最重要之典型與特質。司馬遷之後，能承繼《史記》寫人傳統並予以轉化、創新者，首推韓愈。韓愈集漢魏六朝之大成，為人物書寫開拓新局。其載道內涵以「載儒道」為主，與《史記》「明義利、載治道」政治層面之載道意旨不盡相同；而抒情內涵，一則承繼司馬遷寫人以詠懷之抒情精神，另則以體貼人情之精神，將抒情面向擴及日常之人倫情感，展現出平易之抒情新貌。日趨平易，是中國寫人傳統之發展走向；而中國「作者」之特殊懷抱與文化襟懷，是造就寫人傳統「載道」與「抒情」二大特質之關鍵原因：因為「言志」，因為志在「立名」，所以載道、抒情成為寫人之核心，在以心感心之創作中成就中國最經典之寫人傳統。
This dissertation studies the essence of character writing in Chinese ancient essay writing and its course of development and evolution. In addition, it also discusses the unique spiritual connotation and literary characteristics in Chinese character writing by building a character writing system that uses two main typical character writing methods “lyric” and “zai-dao” (wen-yi-zai-dao: expressing the truth in writings) as main framework. Records of the Grand Historian, written by Sima Qian, is the best representative of character writing before Qin dynasty (pre-Qin). It set up the example of using character writing as main vehicle in the writing of historical biography. On the one hand, it inherited the “zai-dow” tradition from pre-Qin historiography, setting the example of “zai-dow” paradigm by writing character; on the other hand, it absorbed the spirit of “yan-zhi-yong-huai” from ancient poetry and Songs of Chu (or “Chi Ci”), and thus created a tradition of character writing lyric, setting up the “lyric” paradigm. Since then, “zaidao” and “lyric” has become the most important paradiam and essence in character writing in China. After Sima Qian, Han Yu was the one who could inherit such a tradition and further convert it for innovation. Han Yu created a new perspective for character writing by integrating the best of Six Dynasties. The essence of his “zai-dow” featured by “zai-ru-dao” (expressing the Confucian moral truth in writings) is different from that of Records of the Grand Historian, which promoted “ming-yi-li, zai-zhi-dao” (understand integrity and personal interests, expressing the truth of ruling a nation) with political implications. Such lyric implications not only inherited the lyric spirit from Sima Qian which used character writing to express emotions, but also extended lyric to a new arena that were closer to the common feelings of human beings and family relationships, presenting a new perspective. It has been a trend in China to approach the general public in an easier way in character writing. The main reason that “zai-dao” and “lyric” become the main two essences in the character writing tradition is the special cultural ambitions of Chinese “authors.” As a result, “zai-dao” and “lyric” have become the core of character writing in China and one of the most classical traditions in character writing.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。