A Study of the Bibliographic Relationships of the Book Search Results of Amazon.com
|關鍵字:||Amazon.com;亞馬遜網路書店;書目關係;連結關係;線上目錄;Amazon.com;Bibliographic Relationships;Linkage Relationships;Library Catalog;OPAC||公開日期:||2009||摘要:||圖書館線上目錄原是查檢館藏之主要媒介，在資訊超載的環境下，如何提供有助讀者成功檢索之機制，已成刻不容緩之議題。其中一個可努力的方向，就是改善線上目錄檢索結果之呈現方式。傳統以來，圖書館以載體版本、水平呈現之書目記錄，未能有效呈現檢索結果之間的關聯，也不符一般檢索者喜歡Google、Amazon.com等介面呈現方式之期待。mazon.com是全球最早也最成功的網路書店，其用以提昇使用者點閱圖書的機制之一，就是在介面上呈現大量書目鏈結。Amazon.com藉書目鏈結提高書籍交易量，與圖書館希望藉資源的有效連結提昇圖書使用率之目標類似。本研究以Amazon.com圖書資料檢索結果為研究對象，探討其介面提供之連結書目與原查詢作品之間有何書目連結關係，並比較其與圖書館目錄之書目關係的異同。研究選定《Romeo and Juliet》為檢測對象，因該作品有較長之出版歷史與多樣化之出版狀況，有助於檢視各頁面呈現之不同連結呈現方式，以完整了解Amazon.com所有書籍之連結關係。本研究分兩階段檢測分析書目查詢的結果，第一階段是以《Romeo and Juliet》進行查詢，因一般人持續檢視檢索結果之耐性為30至35筆，瀏覽書目資料之上限很少超過100筆（Wiberley, Daugherty, & Danowski, 1995），故選擇結果清單之前百筆資料作為分析對象。檢測結果顯示，此百筆資料所呈現之書目連結關係有9種，分別是主題關係、著者關係、描述關係、衍生關係、等同關係、內容關係、伴隨關係、整體－部份關係，與相同題名或部份題名而關聯之題名關係。二階段檢測是單筆書目資料連結情形的詳細分析，因前測時發現Amazon.com平均約五筆書目記錄所呈現之資訊區塊變化會達飽和，故由前百筆書目取樣，選擇五筆與《Romeo and Juliet》有關之不同出版狀況的書目記錄，各就其頁面中呈現之資料鏈結狀況分析關係類型。第二階段分析所得的連結關係包括：等同關係、衍生關係、著者關係、主題關係、因顧客瀏覽而關聯之關係、屬同一分類類別而關聯之關係、因購買交易而關聯之關係、因書評而關聯之關係、經顧客列入書單而關聯之關係、經顧客設為相同標籤而關聯之關係、因系統廣告而關聯之關係、因引用與被引用而關聯之關係、同一關鍵詞彙而關聯之關係，共計13種。其中有九種為與圖書館線上目錄之傳統書目關係不同之連結關係，這些連結關係是透過顧客與系統兩項因素之考量，在同一頁面複合多元關聯與鏈結而呈現其他書籍，讓顧客得以看到更多的書籍或物件。mazon.com檢索結果頁面中之書籍關係的呈現方式，有其優缺點，其中值得圖書館線上目錄作為連結設計之參考者，包括：一、每筆書目記錄頁面所呈現之資訊區塊、鏈結項目依顧客點閱、書評等行為而彈性呈現鏈結，使每筆書目頁面呈現之書籍不盡相同，而吸引顧客瀏覽佇留網站，亦增進其他書籍之曝光率。二、不同筆書目記錄之有些同樣名稱之鏈結項目，會連至相同頁面；在檢測樣本所呈現的書籍，亦因關聯而部份書籍會交叉重複呈現。這些重複之鏈結狀況，使書目訊息在同一頁面透過不同連結點傳遞給顧客，增進瀏覽印象。三、透過大量鏈結與重複曝光的書籍呈現方式，使用者在同一檢索活動中，得直接展開瀏覽活動，此種書目服務模式，正符合讀者理想與資訊服務潮流之模式（SOPAG of the University of California Libraries, 2005）。
The library catalogue is the most important tool to bridge a library’s collection and its users. Nowadays, users are often faced with the problem of information overload and find it difficult to search for relevant and useful information. Thus, how to provide a better platform and mechanism to enhance users’ searching experiences has become a very important issue. One of the possible directions is to improve the way that search results are displayed. Traditionally, libraries prefer to catalog each book as an individual bibliographic entity. This practice will not be able to collocate related works properly. Moreover, people are getting used to the search interface provided by Google or Amazon.com, this change makes the aforementioned practice a more critical issue.mazon.com is the first and the most successful Internet bookstore. Amazon.com employs some means to keep the visitors continually browsing its products. One of its mechanisms is to create a lot of linkages among its products to encourage its visitors to keep clicking on them. The goal of Amazon.com is to sell more of its products. Similarly, the library wants to increase and facilitate the use of its collection as well. This functional similarity suggests that the library professionals should understand and learn how Amazon.com provides links and how they work. This study, thus, aims to explore the linking relationships and linkage types presented in the book search results of Amazon.com.hakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet was chosen as the target work because it is a classic and has many different versions and various formats. The complication of its publishing status is useful in helping us get an overall picture of Amazon.com’s link relationships. The investigation was divided into two stages. First, a search for Romeo and Juliet was conducted on Amazon.com, and the first 100 titles of the search results were selected for further analysis. The reason why the first 100 titles were selected is because most people would not examine more than 100 records during a search session (Wiberley, Daugherty, & Danowski, 1995). The results of the first stage analysis reveal that nine types of linking relationship are found in the first 100 titles. These are equivalence relationships, derivation relationships, descriptive relationships, content relationships, accompanying relationships, whole-part relationships, responsibility relationships, subject relationships, and title relationships.n the second stage, five titles were purposively selected from the first 100 titles examined in the first stage. These five titles represent the following selection criteria: a version of Romeo and Juliet, a descriptive work of Romeo and Juliet, an adaption of Romeo and Juliet, a translation of Romeo and Juliet, and a version of Romeo and Juliet in different media. The results show that there are 13 types of linking relationships found in the Web pages of these five titles. These relationships comprise of equivalence relationships, derivation relationships, responsibility relationships, subject relationships, items viewed by the same customer relationships, the same category (assigned by the system) relationships, items bought by the same customer relationships, customer review relationships, the same booklist relationships, the same customer tags relationships, link by system advertisement relationships, citation relationships, and the same keyword relationships. The last 9 kinds of relationships are different from the traditional bibliographic relationships. These linkage relationships are based upon two factors: the relationship is either linked by customers or connected by the system. These relationships can be viewed as shared characteristics relationships as well.ased on the findings, the researcher then proposes the following suggestions. First, in Amazon.com, the page of each book record comprises of various information blocks. The contents of these information blocks will vary according to user’s browsing movements. In other words, the contents are based on user’s interests and the purpose is to attain the user’s attention. It means that the display of library OPACs could be more targeted toward the users. Second, in Amazon.com, an item might repetitively appear in different information blocks. The purpose is to increase the linkage to the item and enhance the visibility of the item. If we believe that every book has its reader, we should take this approach into consideration when designing an OPAC. Finally, more and more catalog user studies report that users prefer one-stop-shopping system. Amazon.com may not be an ideal information model to satisfy the needs. However, it does demonstrate a model which is focused on attracting and attaining its visitors. From the perspective of bibliographic relationships, it does employ many linking mechanisms that have been neglected by the library professionals. We definitely can learn something from Amazon.com to improve our OPAC systems.
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