|Title:||Xanthohumol Suppresses NPC1L1 Gene Expression through Downregulation of HNF-4α and Inhibits Cholesterol Uptake in Caco-2 Cells||Authors:||Wu, Ming Jiuan
Gao, Wan Yun
Chen, Pei Yi
Thang, Sang Kim
|Keywords:||cholesterol absorption | HNF-4α | NPC1L1 | statin | xanthohumol||Issue Date:||9-Oct-2019||Journal Volume:||67||Journal Issue:||40||Source:||Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry||Abstract:||
Copyright © 2019 American Chemical Society. Xanthohumol (Xan) is a prenylated chalcone mainly found in hops; it has been demonstrated to function against hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we focused on the hypocholesterolemic effect of Xan on cholesterol uptake and the underlying molecular mechanisms of Xan in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The microarray data showed that Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), an essential transporter for dietary cholesterol absorption, was significantly downregulated in Xan-treated Caco-2 cells. We demonstrated that Xan (10 and 20 μM) suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of NPC1L1 by 0.65 ± 0.12-fold and 0.54 ± 0.15-fold and 0.72 ± 0.04-fold and 0.44 ± 0.12-fold, respectively, compared to that of the vehicle-treated Caco-2 cells. Moreover, Xan (10 and 20 μM) significantly inhibited cholesterol uptake by approximately 12 and 32% in Caco-2 cells. NPC1L1 promoter activity was significantly suppressed by Xan, and a DNA element within the NPC1L1 promoter involved in Xan-mediated NPC1L1 reduction located between the -120 and -20 positions was identified. Moreover, Xan markedly decreased the mRNA and protein levels of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF-4α), a critical activator of NPC1L1 transcription, and subsequently attenuated HNF-4α/NPC1L1 promoter complex formation, resulting in the suppression of NPC1L1 gene expression. Finally, we demonstrated that Xan markedly abolished lovastatin-induced NPC1L1 overexpression in Caco-2 cells. These findings reveal that Xan suppresses NPC1L1 expression via downregulation of HNF-4α and exerts inhibitory effects on cholesterol uptake in the intestinal Caco-2 cells. Our findings suggest Xan could serve as a potential cholesterol-lowering agent and supplement for statin therapy.
|Appears in Collections:||食品科技研究所|
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