|Title:||Systematic screening and identification of the chlorinated transformation products of aromatic pharmaceuticals and personal care products using high-resolution mass spectrometry||Authors:||WEN-LING CHEN
Cheng, Jiun Yi
Lin, Xiao Qian
|Keywords:||Chlorinated derivatives | High-resolution mass spectrometry | Low-dose chlorination | Non-targeted analysis | Pharmaceuticals and personal care products | Transformation products||Issue Date:||1-Oct-2018||Publisher:||ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV||Journal Volume:||637-638||Start page/Pages:||253||Source:||Science of the Total Environment||Abstract:||
© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are an emerging concern because of the large amount of PPCPs that is discharged and its potential ecological effects on the aquatic environment. Chlorination has proven efficient for removing some aromatic PPCPs from wastewater, but the formation of by-products has not been thoroughly investigated partly because of analytical difficulties. This study developed a method for systematically screening and identifying the transformation products (TPs) of multiple aromatic PPCPs through high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). We spiked an environmentally relevant concentration (5000 ng/L) of three anti-inflammatory drugs, four parabens, bisphenol A, oxybenzone, and triclosan in the Milli-Q water and water containing natural organic matter (NOM). Low-dose chlorination (0.2–0.7 mg/L) was performed. We compared the chemical profiles of the chlorinated and untreated water and selected the ions to be identified based on the results of t-test and the ratio of signal intensities. Compound matching and isotopic pattern comparison were applied to characterising the molecular formulae of TPs. The fragmentation of the PPCPs and TPs was used in elucidating the structures of the TPs. The confirmation of TPs was achieved by comparing the retention time and fragment patterns of TPs with the isomer standards. In the chlorinated water, the aromatic PPCPs were substantially removed, except for the anti-inflammatory drugs (removal rates −5.2%–26%). Even with moderate chlorine dosages, all of the aromatic PPCPs, except for acetylsalicylic acid, were transformed into chlorinated derivatives in the Milli-Q water, and so were some PPCPs in the NOM-added water. The results of structure elucidation and compound confirmation as well as the increases in log K ow suggested that chlorination could transform aromatic PPCPs into more persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic TPs. The presence of these TPs in the effluents where the PPCPs are removed through chlorination may pose increased risks to aquatic organisms.
|Appears in Collections:||食品安全與健康研究所|
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