A Desolate Path Taken by the Chinese Trotskyists:heir Interpretations and Practices of the “Permanent Revolution”
|關鍵字:||中國托派;不斷革命論;無產階級專政;托洛斯基;中國社會史論戰;陳獨秀;民主;Chinsese Trotskyists;Permanent Revolution;proletarian dictatorship;Trotsky;the controversy on Chinese social history;Chen Duxiu;Democracy||公開日期:||2008||摘要:||以不斷革命論作為研究的主要概念，本論文的目的在於闡明中國托派誕生的原因和意義，並藉此檢討中國共產革命運動的特殊性。在章節安排上，本文首先介紹托洛斯基的不斷革命論——一個落後資本主義國家的無產階級可以先一步取得政權，建立無產階級專政，進而透過世界革命，以補足自身生產力發展之不足；但當初成功發動無產階級革命的俄國共產黨，卻判定中國的無產階級不具備革命資格，認為中國只能進行一場資產階級革命。1925年至1927年中國革命的失敗催生了中國托派。托派認為，中國與俄國一般，同樣必須透過無產階級革命方能保證革命的成功。針對革命理論與實踐，托派與共產國際、中國共產黨之間，展開一場至關重要的爭辯；這場爭辯從政治領域延燒到學術領域，透過中國社會史論戰，托派判定中國已屬於資本主義社會，藉此佐證中國應該進行無產階級革命的理論。此些想法符合中共創黨之前李大釗的革命理念，但卻被共產國際和中共視為異端邪說，整個托派的生存在中國備受打壓；除了外在的打擊外，圍繞著不斷革命論，托派內部也存在著無止休的爭論。其中，陳獨秀與其他托派成員的互動，以及托派內部對於抗戰問題的爭辯均是中國近現代史別具意義的一頁。藉由以上章節安排，本研究認為，托派的出現代表中國共產主義理想的復歸，他們尊奉中國共產主義者最初奉為圭臬的無產階級革命、國際主義及民主理念。托派的失敗不在於不斷革命論的錯誤，這是企圖將俄國城市革命模式全面移植中國的結果，而世界革命的頓挫更導致托派所深惡痛絕的官僚獨裁。在一連串失敗之後，中國托派藉由重新檢討中共政權性質、毛澤東主義，以及闡述不斷革命論，希冀未來終將復興這條荒湮的革命之路。
By analyzing the various interpretations of the Permanent Revolution by the Chinese Trotskyists, the thesis aims to study the causes and legacies of their emergence and use them as a prism to explore certain distinctive qualities of the Chinese Communist movement. The thesis first introduces the Trotsky’s conception of the Permanent Revolution. He argues that the proletariat in underdeveloped capitalist countries can seize political power and build up proletarian dictatorship easier than their counterparts in other countries. Afterwards, they can launch World Revolution to compensate for the deficiency of their productive forces. Then, the thesis argues that Chinese Trotskyism and the Chinese Trotskyists came into existence as a result of the failure of the Chinese Revolution from 1925 to 1927. The Russian Communist Party, the first launcher of the proletarian revolution in history, held China as disqualified to copy their experience, since the contemporary circumstances of China was more in favor of a bourgeois revolution. And yet the Chinese Trotskyists held a different opinion. They believed that for a successful revolution to ever take place, it had to be started by the working class, just like the case in Russia. An important debate thus ensued as to the theories and practices of revolution among the Trotskyists, the Comintern, and the Chinese Communist Party. Through the complicated debates surrounding Chinese Social History, Claiming China was a capitalist country in nature, the Trotskyists argued China should apply and practice the theory of proletarian revolution, an argument that dovetailed with Li Dazhao’s idea before the Chinese Communist Party was founded. And yet such an idea was condemned as heretical and evil by the Comintern and the Chinese Communist Party, who began to suppress the Trotskyist group ruthlessly both in ideology and in politics. Lastly the thesis outlines the endless disputes among important Chinese Trotskyists, especially those between Chen Duxiu and his comrades. Their debates concerning the Permanent Revolution and the Second Sino-Japanese War were conducive to a fuller understanding of Modern Chinese History. Based on the above study, the thesis would like to argue that the emergence of the Chinese Trotskyism and Trotskyists represented “a reversion to origins” (Arif Dirlik). The ideas they had followed so closely—the Proletarian Revolution, internationalism, and democracy—were the ideas initially embraced as the highest criteria in the Chinese Communist movement. Their failure was not because of their radical application of the Permanent Revolution, but because they had transplanted to China the model of Russian urban revolution without necessary modification. Also, their fate was determined by the failure of World Revolution as well, which in turn led to the dictatorship of the bureaucracy the Trotskyists strongly detested in the first place. After a succession of failures, the Chinese Trotskyists began to rethink and revisit a series of important theoretical problems—such as the regime of Chinese Communist Party, the Maoism, the Permanent Revolution, and so on so forth—in the hope that one day, they might be able to realize the Communist Revolution .
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