Practice of the Freedom of the Press in China: Cases of Hollington Kong Tong and Xingye Ma
|關鍵字:||新聞自由;新聞審查;新聞檢查;新聞專業;宣傳;董顯光;馬星野;Freedom of the Press;Censorship;Journalistic Professionalism;Propaganda;Hollington Kong Tong;Xingye Ma||公開日期:||2012||摘要:||本研究透過分析董顯光和馬星野的著述與活動，探究赴美學習新聞學的中國留學生返國後如何運用所學，對新聞自由的看法經歷什麼樣的改變，如何調適國民黨宣傳原則和美國新聞專業倫理之間的矛盾。
This research aims to explore how the Chinese students who studied journalism in the U.S. adjusted their differences and paradoxes between the ideals of American Journalism and the KMT''s propaganda principles by analyzing the articles and activities of Mr. Hollington K. Tong and Mr. Xingye Ma. Hollington Kong Tong deeply internalized the American ideals of freedom of the press and journalistic professionalism. However, when China was in crisis, Tong surrendered to patriotism and promoted propaganda, censorship and cultivated propagandists for the KMT. Tong faced huge pressures from Chiang Kai-Shek and the KMT top officials so that he couldn''t loosen the framework of censorship. U.S. journalists and professors felt their freedoms were threatened and fought with Tong. This position ultimately caused him significant regret. Xingye Ma initially devoted himself to journalistic education. Chiang Kai-Shek asked Ma to train propagandists for the KMT, but Ma advocated freedom of the press and wanted students to become professional journalists rather than propagandists. He combined the Three Principles of the People, traditional Chinese ethics and American journalistic professionalism to shape his views of journalism, in which he underscored the interests of the country, the nation and the aforementioned Three Principles of the People as the highest principles for Chinese journalists. To comply with the KMT''s needs, Ma ignored the principle of independence. Ma enriched Chinese journalism while limiting the rooms of freedom. He also believed that social responsibilities are more important than freedom of the press. But when Ma was in charge of the Central Daily News, he operated it as an enterprise and adopted a policy of nonintervention. Ma let young journalists cover sensitive topics and publish critical editorials. It is clear that Ma believed in some America ideals and thought that the press should monitor the government to promote democracy. Moreover, Tong and Ma were attracted toward freedom of the press and anticipated to modernize Chinese journalism, but the political pressures restrained them from widening this freedom. However, admittedly, they still have contributions for professionalizing journalism.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。