|Title:||4-Methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene, a Major Active Metabolite of Bisphenol A, Triggers Pancreatic β-Cell Death via a JNK/AMPKα Activation-Regulated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway||Authors:||Huang, Cheng-Chin
|Keywords:||4-methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP); AMPKα; ER stress; JNK; apoptosis; β-cells||Issue Date:||22-Apr-2021||Journal Volume:||22||Journal Issue:||9||Source:||International journal of molecular sciences||Abstract:||
4-methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)pent-1-ene (MBP), a major active metabolite of bisphenol A (BPA), is generated in the mammalian liver. Some studies have suggested that MBP exerts greater toxicity than BPA. However, the mechanism underlying MBP-induced pancreatic β-cell cytotoxicity remains largely unclear. This study demonstrated the cytotoxicity of MBP in pancreatic β-cells and elucidated the cellular mechanism involved in MBP-induced β-cell death. Our results showed that MBP exposure significantly reduced cell viability, caused insulin secretion dysfunction, and induced apoptotic events including increased caspase-3 activity and the expression of active forms of caspase-3/-7/-9 and PARP protein. In addition, MBP triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as indicated by the upregulation of GRP 78, CHOP, and cleaved caspase-12 proteins. Pretreatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA; a pharmacological inhibitor of ER stress) markedly reversed MBP-induced ER stress and apoptosis-related signals. Furthermore, exposure to MBP significantly induced the protein phosphorylation of JNK and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α. Pretreatment of β-cells with pharmacological inhibitors for JNK (SP600125) and AMPK (compound C), respectively, effectively abrogated the MBP-induced apoptosis-related signals. Both JNK and AMPK inhibitors also suppressed the MBP-induced activation of JNK and AMPKα and of each other. In conclusion, these findings suggest that MBP exposure exerts cytotoxicity on β-cells via the interdependent activation of JNK and AMPKα, which regulates the downstream apoptotic signaling pathway.
|Appears in Collections:||醫學系|
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