|Title:||Prediction of specialty coffee flavors based on near-infrared spectra using machine? and deep-learning methods||Authors:||Chang Y.-T
|Keywords:||article; coffee; convolutional neural network; deep learning; feasibility study; flavor; human; major clinical study; near infrared spectroscopy; prediction; random forest; recall; support vector machine||Issue Date:||2021||Journal Volume:||101||Journal Issue:||11||Start page/Pages:||4705-4714||Source:||Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture||Abstract:||
BACKGROUND: Specialty coffee fascinates people with its bountiful flavors. Currently, flavor descriptions of specialty coffee beans are only offered by certified coffee cuppers. However, such professionals are rare, and the market demand is tremendous. The hypothesis of this study was to investigate the feasibility to train machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) models for predicting the flavors of specialty coffee using near-infrared spectra of ground coffee as the input. Successful model development would provide a new and objective framework to predict complex flavors in food and beverage products. Results: In predicting seven categories of coffee flavors, the models developed using the ML method (i.e. support vector machine) and the deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) achieved similar performance, with the recall and accuracy being 70–73% and 75–77% respectively. Through the proposed visualization method – a focusing plot – the potential correlation among the highly weighted spectral region of the DCNN model, the predicted flavor categories, and the corresponding chemical composition are presented. Conclusion: This study has proven the feasibility of applying ML and DL methods on the near-infrared spectra of ground coffee to predict specialty coffee flavors. The effective models provided moderate prediction for seven flavor categories based on 266 samples. The results of classification and visualization indicate that the DCNN model developed is a promising and explainable method for coffee flavor prediction. ? 2021 Society of Chemical Industry. ? 2021 Society of Chemical Industry
|Appears in Collections:||生物機電工程學系|
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