The Conflict between Tang Dynasty and the Turks in the Agricultural- Pastoral Mixed District from 7th to 8th Century
|關鍵字:||唐朝;後突厥汗國;農牧混合地帶;阿史德氏;內亞史;Tang Dynasty;the Second Turkic Khanate;Agricultural- Pastoral mixed District;Ashide clan;Inner Asian history||公開日期:||2016||摘要:||本文處理7至8世紀唐朝與突厥爭奪農牧混合地帶，以及其後續影響。農牧混合地帶是一個從現今遼寧伸延到甘肅、內蒙古西部、陝西北部的狹長過渡地帶。本文焦點，將放在今內蒙古中部及山西北部，大約是唐高宗時期單于大都護府的所在地。所謂唐朝與突厥爭奪農牧混合地帶，包含了7世紀初東突厥滅亡，唐朝就地設置羈縻州，和7世紀末8世紀初，唐朝與後突厥在該區爆發的戰爭。歷史上，草原遊牧國家與農耕中國重複爭奪這個區域，當後者取得勝利時，會沿邊安置歸降部落，以阻擋更外圍的遊牧部落。唐朝之所以設置突厥羈縻州，也是基於上述原因。唐朝為了架空可汗氏族阿史那氏，改以重用阿史德氏族，結果導致阿史那氏的崛起，突厥人在其主導下復國。在內陸亞洲史的脈絡下，後突厥汗國時期，以突厥文字的發明為指標，漠北的遊牧社會開始進入「文明化」。後繼的回紇開始修築城市，引入體系化宗教，完成了「文明化」的過程。受回紇影響的契丹繼承了這些變革，並解散了既有的部落共同體，代表北亞正式進入中世時代。在中國方面，雖然朔方軍的建立、三受降城的修築抵擋了後突厥的入侵，但隨著中唐以後國勢漸衰，藩鎮割據，晉北與內蒙中部在晚唐成為李克用的勢力範圍，下啟五代沙陀諸王朝。以上，無論是突厥的復國、朔方軍的建立，都可以追溯到公元7至8世紀的農牧混合地區。
This thesis dual with the conflict between Tang Dynasty and the Turks in the Agricultural- Pastoral mixed District from 7th to 8th century and its influence. Agricultural- Pastoral mixed District was a long and narrow transitional area from Liaoning to the west of Inner Mongolia and the north of Shaanxi. This thesis would focus on the nowadays middle part of Inner Mongolia and North of Shanxi, which was the location of Chanyu Protectorate during the Gaozong reign. The conflict between Tang Dynasty and the Turks in the Agricultural- Pastoral mixed District means, 1. fall of the First Turkic Khanate in early 7th century and the establishment of Jimifuzhou and 2. The war between Tang Dynasty and the Second Turkic Khanate in late 7th and the early 8th century. In history, nomadic states and agricultural China had conflicts in the Agricultural- Pastoral mixed District, if the latter won the war, it settled down the surrendered tribes in the same area to defense the outer nomadic tribes. Tang Dynasty created Jimifuzhou for the same reason. Tang Dynasty promoted the members of the Ashide clan(or tribe) and overheaded the members of the Ashina clan(or tribe), it caused the rise of Ashides that the Turks rebuilt their khanate under the leadership of Ashides. In the context of inner Asia history, the Turkic Alphabet was invented in the era of the second Turkic Khanate,, which mean the “civilizing” in the north of Gobi. The following Uyghurs built cities and introduced systemic religion, finished the progress of “civilizing”. Affected by Uyghurs, the Khitans displaced the original tribal communities, as a symbol of medieval period in inner Asia history. In the other hand, although the Tang Dynasty defensed itself from the invasion of Turks by organizing the Shuofang Army and building the three Shouxiangchengs, it came to weaken in 8th to 9th century, the local powers fall into the hands of warlords, Li Keyong controlled the north of Shanxi and the middle part of Inner Mongolia, his followers built the Sha-t’o dynasties. In conclusion, the path of Chinese and Inner Asian history in after 8th century was affected by the conflict between Tang Dynasty and the Turks in the Agricultural- Pastoral mixed District from 7th to 8th century in some reason.
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