|Title:||Hepatitis A virus infection and hepatitis A vaccination in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: A review||Authors:||KUAN-YIN LIN
|Issue Date:||2017||Publisher:||Baishideng Publishing Group Co||Journal Volume:||23||Journal Issue:||20||Start page/Pages:||3589-3606||Source:||World Journal of Gastroenterology||Abstract:||
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common infectious etiologies of acute hepatitis worldwide. The virus is known to be transmitted fecal-orally, resulting in symptoms ranging from asymptomatic infection to fulminant hepatitis. HAV can also be transmitted through oral-anal sex. Residents from regions of low endemicity for HAV infection often remain susceptible in their adulthood. Therefore, clustered HAV infections or outbreaks of acute hepatitis A among men who have sex with men and injecting drug users have been reported in countries of low endemicity for HAV infection. The duration of HAV viremia and stool shedding of HAV may be longer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals compared to HIV-negative individuals with acute hepatitis A. Current guidelines recommend HAV vaccination for individuals with increased risks of exposure to HAV (such as from injecting drug use, oral-anal sex, travel to or residence in endemic areas, frequent clotting factor or blood transfusions) or with increased risks of fulminant disease (such as those with chronic hepatitis). The seroconversion rates following the recommended standard adult dosing schedule (2 doses of HAVRIX 1440 U or VAQTA 50 U administered 6-12 mo apart) are lower among HIV-positive individuals compared to HIV-negative individuals. While the response rates may be augmented by adding a booster dose at week 4 sandwiched between the first dose and the 6-mo dose, the need of booster vaccination remain less clear among HIV-positive individuals who have lost anti-HAV antibodies. ? 2017 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
|ISSN:||1007-9327||DOI:||10.3748/wjg.v23.i20.3589||SDG/Keyword:||alanine aminotransferase; alkaline phosphatase; aspartate aminotransferase; gamma glutamyltransferase; hepatitis A vaccine; hepatitis A antibody; hepatitis A vaccine; immunosuppressive agent; alanine aminotransferase blood level; alkaline phosphatase blood level; anorexia; antibody specificity; antibody titer; aspartate aminotransferase blood level; CD4 lymphocyte count; clinical feature; clinical practice; diarrhea; disease severity; drug efficacy; drug safety; endemic disease; fatigue; fever; gamma glutamyl transferase blood level; hepatitis A; hepatomegaly; high risk population; homosexuality; human; Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient; immunogenicity; incidence; jaundice; malaise; nausea; practice guideline; prevalence; probability; regulatory T lymphocyte; Review; seroconversion; seroprevalence; sexual behavior; splenomegaly; symptomatology; upper abdominal pain; vaccination; virology; virus genome; virus strain; virus transmission; vomiting; adult; blood; comorbidity; complication; epidemic; female; hepatitis A; Hepatitis A virus; Human immunodeficiency virus infection; male; male homosexuality; preventive health service; secondary immunization; seroepidemiology; vaccination; virology; young adult; Adult; Comorbidity; Disease Outbreaks; Female; Hepatitis A; Hepatitis A Antibodies; Hepatitis A Vaccines; Hepatitis A virus; HIV Infections; HIV Seropositivity; Homosexuality, Male; Humans; Immunization Programs; Immunization, Secondary; Immunosuppressive Agents; Male; Seroepidemiologic Studies; Vaccination; Young Adult
|Appears in Collections:||醫學系|
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