|Title:||Analysis of Canopy Gaps of Coastal Broadleaf Forest Plantations in Northeast Taiwan Using UAV Lidar and the Weibull Distribution||Authors:||Chung C.-H
|Keywords:||Canopy height model;Digital surface model;Digital terrain model;UAV photogrammetry;Weibull distribution;Zeta distribution;Aerial photography;Aircraft detection;Antennas;Data acquisition;Ecosystems;Forestry;Optical radar;Weibull distribution;Broadleaf forest;Canopy gaps;Canopy Height Models;Digital surface models;Digital terrain model;Forest canopies;Forest plantation;Light detection and ranging;UAV photogrammetry;Zeta distribution;Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)||Issue Date:||2022||Journal Volume:||14||Journal Issue:||3||Source:||Remote Sensing||Abstract:||
Canopy gaps are pivotal for monitoring forest ecosystem dynamics. Conventional field methods are time-consuming and labor intensive, making them impractical for regional mapping and systematic monitoring. Gaps may be delineated using airborne lidar or aerial photographs acquired from a manned aircraft. However, high cost in data acquisition and low flexibility in flight logistics significantly reduce the accessibility of the approaches. To address these issues, this study utilized miniature light detection and ranging (lidar) onboard an unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAVlidar ) to map forest canopy gaps of young and mature broadleaf forest plantations along the coast of northeastern Taiwan. This study also used UAV photographs (UAVphoto ) for the same task for comparison purposes. The canopy height models were derived from UAVlidar and UAVphoto with the availability of a digital terrain model from UAVlidar . Canopy gap distributions of the forests were modeled with the power-law zeta and Weibull distributions. The performance of UAVlidar was found to be superior to UAVphoto in delineating the gap distribution through ground observation, mainly due to lidar’s ability to detect small canopy gaps. There were apparent differences of the power-law zeta distributions for the young and mature forest stands with the exponents λ of 1.36 (1.45) and 1.71 (1.61) for UAVlidar and UAVphoto, respectively, suggesting that larger canopy gaps were present within the younger stands. The canopy layer of mature forest stands was homogeneous, and the size distributions of both sensors and methods were insensitive to the spatial extent of the monitored area. Contrarily, the young forests were heterogeneous, but only UAVlidar with the Weibull distribution responded to the change of spatial extent. This study demonstrates that using the Weibull distribution to analyze canopy gap from high-spatial resolution UAVlidar may provide detailed information of regional forest canopy of coastal broadleaf forests. ? 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
|Appears in Collections:||地理環境資源學系|
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