|Therapeutic Ultrasound Halts Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease In Vivo via the Regulation of Markers Associated with Renal Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition and Senescence
|chronic kidney disease; renal injury; senescence; therapeutic ultrasound
|International journal of molecular sciences
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS), a therapeutic type of ultrasound, is known to enhance bone fracture repair processes and help some tissues to heal. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of LIPUS for the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in two CKD mouse models. CKD mice were induced using both unilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) with nephrectomy and adenine administration. The left kidneys of the CKD mice were treated using LIPUS with the parameters of 3 MHz, 100 mW/cm2, and 20 min/day, based on the preliminary experiments. The mice were euthanized 14 days after IRI or 28 days after the end of adenine administration. LIPUS treatment effectively alleviated the decreases in the body weight and albumin/globulin ratio and the increases in the serum renal functional markers, fibroblast growth factor-23, renal pathological changes, and renal fibrosis in the CKD mice. The parameters for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), senescence-related signal induction, and the inhibition of α-Klotho and endogenous antioxidant enzyme protein expression in the kidneys of the CKD mice were also significantly alleviated by LIPUS. These results suggest that LIPUS treatment reduces CKD progression through the inhibition of EMT and senescence-related signals. The application of LIPUS may be an alternative non-invasive therapeutic intervention for CKD therapy.
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