|Title:||Norketamine, the Main Metabolite of Ketamine, Induces Mitochondria-Dependent and ER Stress-Triggered Apoptotic Death in Urothelial Cells via a Ca2+-Regulated ERK1/2-Activating Pathway||Authors:||Lin, Jhe-Wei
|Keywords:||ER stress; bladder urothelial cell; extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2; intracellular calcium; mitochondrial dysfunction; norketamine||Issue Date:||23-Apr-2022||Publisher:||MDPI||Journal Volume:||23||Journal Issue:||9||Source:||International Journal of Molecular Sciences||Abstract:||
Ketamine-associated cystitis is characterized by suburothelial inflammation and urothelial cell death. Norketamine (NK), the main metabolite of ketamine, is abundant in urine following ketamine exposure. NK has been speculated to exert toxic effects in urothelial cells, similarly to ketamine. However, the molecular mechanisms contributing to NK-induced urothelial cytotoxicity are almost unclear. Here, we aimed to investigate the toxic effects of NK and the potential mechanisms underlying NK-induced urothelial cell injury. In this study, NK exposure significantly reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in human urinary bladder epithelial-derived RT4 cells that NK (0.01-0.5 mM) exhibited greater cytotoxicity than ketamine (0.1-3 mM). Signals of mitochondrial dysfunction, including mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and cytosolic cytochrome c release, were found to be involved in NK-induced cell apoptosis and death. NK exposure of cells also triggered the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related proteins including GRP78, CHOP, XBP-1, ATF-4 and -6, caspase-12, PERK, eIF-2α, and IRE-1. Pretreatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid (an ER stress inhibitor) markedly prevented the expression of ER stress-related proteins and apoptotic events in NK-exposed cells. Additionally, NK exposure significantly activated JNK, ERK1/2, and p38 signaling and increased intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i). Pretreatment of cells with both PD98059 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) and BAPTA/AM (a cell-permeable Ca2+ chelator), but not SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), effectively suppressed NK-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, ER stress-related signals, and apoptotic events. The elevation of [Ca2+]i in NK-exposed cells could be obviously inhibited by BAPTA/AM, but not PD98059. Taken together, these findings suggest that NK exposure exerts urothelial cytotoxicity via a [Ca2+]i-regulated ERK1/2 activation, which is involved in downstream mediation of the mitochondria-dependent and ER stress-triggered apoptotic pathway, consequently resulting in urothelial cell death. Our findings suggest that regulating [Ca2+]i/ERK signaling pathways may be a promising strategy for treatment of NK-induced urothelial cystitis.
|Appears in Collections:||毒理學研究所|
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