The Methodologies of Two Historians of the Book: Books, Reading and Written Culture in the Works of Henri-Jean Martin and Roger Chartier
|Authors:||秦曼儀||Keywords:||馬爾坦Henri-Jean Martin;夏提埃Roger Chartier;書籍史;閱讀史;書寫文化史;H.-J. Martin;R. Chartier;history of the book;history of reading;history of written culture||Issue Date:||Jun-2008||Source:||臺大歷史學報||Start page/Pages:||257-314||Abstract:||
在探討讀者和閱讀問題的人文學科，如社會學、文學批評、哲學等之中，法國的書籍史學於70年代中葉就此問題對自身展開了認識論和方法論的反省。本文透過兩位史家－「法國書籍史之父」馬爾坦(Henri-Jean Martin)和推動法國書籍史學建構閱讀之問題意識的夏提埃(Roger Chartier)-在研究過程中對批評的回應，探究他們如何在法國書籍史既有的研究基礎上，探討書籍和閱讀的關係。透過比較他們所運用的概念工具、研究取徑和材料，釐清兩人在閱讀經驗的個別差異性以及相關的社會與物質條件等問題上，既分歧又不無交集的對話關係。另一方面，本文也分析法國書籍史學如何在史家的研究實踐中，形塑出「生產、發行和接受」三稜鏡式的架構，以檢視書籍的歷史，並且把研究對象擴及至歷史上所有物質形式的溝通媒介。在延伸自書籍史的閱讀史研究中，卻忽略了討論作者亦為讀者這個重要的研究視角。本文最後借助這兩位書籍史家擴展至書寫文化史的研究成果，特別是夏提埃對此領域的定義和反省，檢驗法國近代早期書籍出版中同時身為讀者的作者、編者，在從事或介入的文本寫作和編輯形式中，如何與其訴諸的讀者群建立溝通關係，以及呈現自身的閱讀實踐。
Among human sciences, such as sociology, literary criticism, and philosophy, which have been studying the question of readers and reading, the history of the book in France has submitted itself to a deep self-criticism since the 1970s. The two leading figures of this trend are Henri-Jean Martin, recognized as the founding father of the history of the book, and Roger Chartier, who has developed the problematization of the question of reading. This article examines how these two historians have built up a relationship between books and reading upon the existing foundation of past research on the history of the book. On the one hand, in my analysis of their conceptual tools and approaches, as well as the comparison of the materials they have used, I clarify the differences as well as similarities between H.-J. Martin and R. Chartier's points of view on questions such as individual reading experiences and related social and material conditions. On the other hand, I show how the historians of the book in France are shaping their research framework in a triple perspective: production, diffusion and reception, and how they are extending their studies to all material forms of communication. However, I do think that the history of reading developed by the history of the book has overlooked an aspect which seems to me important: the author and the editor are themselves a priori readers. In order to study this point, I follow H.-J. Martin and R. Chartier in the new field of "written culture", especially R. Chartier who has defined and reflected upon it. Finally, on these grounds, this article shows in which respects, authors and editors, considered as readers also, act upon the text or the form of the text in order to build a communication with readers and reveal their own reading practices.
|Appears in Collections:||歷史學系|
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