Ming Conceptions of Taiwan: From Silhouettes to Islands
|關鍵字:||臺灣;海禁;夷洲;流求;琉球;小琉球;雞籠嶼;澎湖彭湖;海寇;東番;Ming's conceptions of Taiwan;Yi-chou;Liu-ch'iu;P'eng-hu;pirates;Tung-fan;the VOC's occupation of Taiwan||公開日期:||十二月-2007||期刊:||臺大歷史學報||頁數:||093-148||摘要:||臺灣在明朝不是中國的領土，雖然距離沿海信地澎湖很近，但明朝人對臺灣的認識很不切合實際。這篇論文昌在探討明人的臺灣認識的情況，以及此一認識由粗淺的印象到具體接觸的演變過程。正文分為五節。首先討論有關中文文獻之「夷洲」與「流求」的長年論爭，特別側重明人的理解。由於中國和琉球國(沖繩，今屬日本)往來密切，臺灣逐漸浮現在明人的視野中。在處理十五至十七世紀初環中國海域的人群活動時，我們必須了解：明朝實施海禁，以及其後的局部開放海禁（隆慶元年，1567）是整個歷史進程的大背景。第二至第五節分別探討外人對臺灣的「逐步」認識。起初明朝出使琉球的封舟把臺灣當成海上航行的定位指標。隨著海寇問題的深化及侵犯範圍的南移，臺灣成為海盜的據點或海外的巢穴（以被稱為「東番」的西南靠海地區為主）。在明朝禁止人民和日本貿易的時代，臺灣成為中日貿易的轉運點;日本人靚靚它，幾度想加以招撫，甚至于以佔領。面對日本的野心，明朝士大夫認為它是大明東南海防的最前線雖不必為我領土，但也不能為他人所佔。其後，到東方尋找貿易據點的荷蘭人原本對這個(群)島嶼不感興趣，但在古領彭湖不逆之後，最後還是決定白領大員，將臺灣帶入了一個嶄新的發展路向。臺灣這個島嶼，不論亞洲大陸的統治者如何認識它－夷洲也好，流求也好，或竟皆不是，它的土著民兀自過著近乎與世隔絕的生活。然而，它的四周來自不同歷史脈絡的發展不容許它「自外」於這一切。外人對這個島嶼的認識，從海上航行中的某個角度看到它的側影，逐漸因為各種具體的接觸而認為它是二個島嶼，或三個島嶼，最後大約在荷蘭人白領後，臺灣在外人的視野中才變成南北連成一氣的島嶼。此後，臺灣捲入複雜的歷史進程中，原本「遺世獨立」的島民則被動地進到對他們而言全然陌生的世界中。
Taiwan was not part of the territory of Ming China, albeit very near the Pescadores (the P'eng-hu Islands), which was within the Chinese maritime patrol circle. Initially Ming people knew very little about the island of Taiwan, but as time progressed Taiwan gradually emerged in their mind with clearer and concrete images, though still far away from its real shape. This article aims to deal with the process through which the Ming people formed their conceptions of Taiwan and the changes of these conceptions until the time when Taiwan was occupied by the Dutch. This article first discusses the centuries-old controversies concerning the islands of Yi-chou and Liu-ch'iu, with emphases on the Ming knowledge of Liu-ch'iu (the Ryukyu islands, now Okinawa prefecture, Japan). The Ming policy of banning maritime trade provides crucial background for understanding the human activities around the China Sea (East China Sea and South China Sea) during the period from the 15th to the early 17th century. The rest of this work establishes the following points: (1) Part of Taiwan (at most a silhouette) was used as "landmark" by people on their danger-ridden way to the Ryukyu Islands. (2) During the times when southeast China coast was preyed upon by pirates, certain areas of Taiwan became the hideouts of those pirates. (3) Due to its good location, Taiwan became an important trading post for the illegal yet lucrative trade between China and Japan. As a result Japan showed interest in Taiwan and attempted to conquer it, but to no avail. (4) For the scholars and officials concerned with the security of the southeast coast, Taiwan emerged as the front-line of naval defense. Although few proposed occupying Taiwan, they held that it should not to be taken by other powers. (5) In the early 17th century, the Dutch twice occupied the Pescadores, but failed in securing it as a VOC stronghold. The Dutch initially had little interest in Taiwan, but was persuaded to occupy the port of Ta-yuan (today's An-p'ing, Tainan， Taiwan) instead. Taiwan thus became a trding post and a colony of the VOC. Only years after the Dutch occupied Taiwan did the outside world come to know that Taiwan is a big island instead of consisting of two or three islands. After the Dutch occupation, the aboriginal peoples on the island were unknowingly involved in the historical process of the larger "world", of which they knew almost nothing.
在 IR 系統中的文件，除了特別指名其著作權條款之外，均受到著作權保護，並且保留所有的權利。